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Volume 22, Issue 1  (2013)

B.V. Toshev
Science Education in Scholarly Periodicals: Trends and Prospects [In Bulgarian]

Full text: PDF (1537 K)

Teaching Efficiency:
I. Hadjiali, T. Kolarova
Development of the Personal Reflection of Students Who Study Molecular Biology, Genetics and Cellular Engineering Technologies [In Bulgarian]

Full text: PDF (544 K)

B.H.S. Thimmappa
Perspectives on Technology Enhanced Learning and Teaching for an Exciting Learning Experience

Full text: PDF (399 K)

V. Bianda, J.-A. Constenla, R. Haubrichs, P.-L. Zaffalon
Colorful Experiments for Students: Synthesis of Indigo and Derivatives

Full text: PDF (610 K)

Bulgarian Educational Tradition:
A. Gendjova
The First Book in Chemistry in Bulgarian (1871): True Authors and Sources [In Bulgarian]

Full text: PDF (722 K)

Advanced Science:
E. Kirkova
Isoelectronic Molecules and Ions of p-Elements [In Bulgarian]

Full text: PDF (453 K)

From the Research Laboratories:
M.I. Luleva, H. van der Werff, F. van der Meer, V. Jetten
Observing Change in Potassium Abundance in a Soil Erosion Experiment with Field Infrared Spectroscopy

Full text: PDF (1042 K)

N. Encheva
Simple Experiments for Beginners at Home [In Bulgarian]

Full text: PDF (425 K)

K.S. Taber
Personal and Collective Knowledge: Harry Collins' Notions of Tacit Knowledge and of the Individual as an Epistemic Parasite

Full text: PDF (413 K)

Science Education in the Past:
R. Popov (Ed. B.V. Toshev)
Tzar's Cave [In Bulgarian]

Full text: PDF (654 K)

Ed. B.V. Toshev
School Laboratories and Equipment[In Bulgarian]

Full text: PDF (2665 K)


Khimiya, Volume 22, Issue 1(2013)

Khimiya. 22, 7-16 (2013) Author(s): B.V. Toshev:

Abstract.This editorial paper describes the history, problems and ideas for future development of the present journal: Chemistry: Bulgarian Journal of Science Education. In recent years the old pedagogical disciplines have amalgamated in the new comprehensive Science of Education. Chemistry is a multidisciplinary journal which puts in its background the integration, both in research and school practice, of the former methodical and pedagogical subjects. Therefore, the educational researches in astronomy, biology, chemistry, geography and physics are all in the scope of the journal. Additionally, the history and philosophy of science for understanding the science development and laws governing this development, is amongst the main topics of the journal.

Keywords: scholarly journal, multidisciplinary journal, science education, educational research, history and philosophy of science


Khimiya. 22, 17-29 (2013) Author(s): I. Hadjiali, T. Kolarova:

Abstract.The presented material is an attempt of examining the dynamic of the personal reflection amongst 15-17-year-old students who study molecular biology, genetics and cellular engineering biotechnologies. This is a longitudinal educational research. In the study are included 90 pupils from 9-11 grades of two Bulgarian secondary schools from a village and from a small town as well. The experimental teaching is based on the conceptual ideas of the reflective approach and reflection-based teaching technologies. The results from the whole research are processed by the software product SSPS 13 through the use of analytical statistic and ?-Means Cluster analyses. The results show that the application of the reflective approach and reflective pedagogical technologies activate the transition from zero level (pre-reflective) (L0) to medium level (L2) and high level (L3) of personal reflection of examined students.

Keywords: personal reflection, levels of reflection, reflective approach, secondary biology education, longitudinal research, cluster analysis


Khimiya. 22, 30-51 (2013) Author(s): B.H.S. Thimmappa:

Abstract.The scope for learning subjects in our own way via flexible learning module is relevant in this age of tablets to capture the excitement of science. The paradigm shift in globalized learning using multiple sources is reflected in the recent trends, practices and techniques among learners/facilitators changing the very nature of human relations and social life. The present situation of slightly lower academic performance from an educational perspective needs some specific and alternate methods to discuss a subject, impart knowledge, instill basic values and for well-rounded educational experience. The PowerPoint presentations, open source articles, lateral and supplementary learning materials, problem based learning, multimedia learning and miscellaneous methods discussed in this paper stir the imagination to influence the thoughts and deeds of the future generation and have implications on health, education and prosperity with the advantage of subject areas, supplementary reading material and value addition. The disciplined learners can use visualization technique as a primary method of learning to gain knowledge and understanding to increase confidence levels by adapting divergent thinking approach in the changing times. Learning can be facilitated by maintaining learner-sensitive environment to gain a more positive understanding, appreciation, perspectives of the important contributions that science and technology makes in the real world at large and to generate new ideas, products, processes and jobs. The whole perspective of creating that exclusive experience for learners not only elevate learning to the next level but also speaks volumes about the facilitators passion for teaching to create a mental picture.

Keywords: : interdisciplinary learning, content design, skill development, quality education, open source articles


Khimiya. 22, 52-65 (2013) Author(s): V. Bianda, J.-A. Constenla, R. Haubrichs, P.-L. Zaffalon:

Abstract.In order to enhance the interest for organic chemistry among undergraduate students, the synthesis of indigo and three derivatives are described. In this way, students can see the influence of aromatic substituent groups. The syntheses of indigo, 5,5�-indigo disulfonic acid, 5,5�-dibromoindigo, 6,6�-dichloroindigo are proposed.

Keywords: indigo, indigo carmine, 6,6�-dichloroindigo, substituent effect


Khimiya. 22, 66-79 (2013) Author(s): A. Gendjova:

Abstract.The first book in Chemistry in Bulgarian is Agricultural organic and inorganic chemistry: popular written for schools and people. It is compiled by the teacher D. Enchev, who used it as a textbook in 1871. The book is recorded in the name of its compiler Enchev (1871). But he himself wrote that the book is authored by �Bernshtein�, with an appendix by �Shtekgardt�. The goal of this study is to investigate the real authors and the original sources, used in writing the book, as well as the historical preconditions for its publishing in Bulgarian. This research demonstrates that the origin of the first Bulgarian Chemistry book is European. Its original version is the third volume of the popular series �Aus dem Reiche der Naturwissenschaft: Für Jedermann aus dem Volke� by A. Bernstein (Bernstein, 1854); translated in Russian as �From nature sciences field� (Bernshtein, 1865). The appendix originates from the book �Die Schule der Chemie� by J. Stöckhardt (1846); translated in Russian as �Chemistry textbook� (Shtekgardt, 1849). Enchev uses the Russian translations of German originals in writing the Bulgarian book. Short biographies of the authors are provided.

Keywords: science history, communicating chemistry, chemistry books and textbooks


Khimiya. 22, 80-90 (2013) Author(s): E. Kirkova:

Abstract.Similarities in electronic structures lead to notable similarities or a gradual change in a regular way of many properties of isoelectronic molecules and ions, such as stability, chemical reactivity, and molecular geometry. There are isoelectronic species having the same total number of electrons or the same number of valence electrons. A detailed review of the relationship between structure and properties of such isoelectronic binary molecules and ions composed of p-elements is presented in this article. Some trends are traced out across the periods of the Periodic table, explained and illustrated by a number of examples.

Keywords: isoelectronic molecules and ions, p-elements, molecular geometry


Khimiya. 22, 91-109 (2013) Author(s): M.I. Luleva, H. van der Werff, F. van der Meer, V. Jetten:

Abstract.Soil erosion has been studied extensively in the last decades. Studies on soil particle movement through chemical tracers were mostly based on the use of radioactive elements. These however have a limited half-life, and are highly toxic and expensive to measure over large areas. This study examines the possibility to use Potassium (K), in the form of an agricultural fertilizer, as a soil particle tracer. Soluble Potassium is spectrally active and has an absorption feature near 2465 nm. This research hypothesises that flowing water moves surface soil particles with adsorbed K and can be traced by observing the change in absorption feature. A field-based water flow experiment was conducted on 3 plots in silty loam soils in the Netherlands. Two plots were treated with 0.6 and 2.48 mg/g of K2O fertilizer, and one plot was used as reference. Infrared reflectance spectra were collected to observe spatial variation in available K, before and after application of fertilizer, and after runoff simulation by water flow. Change in absorption feature depth near 2465nm was used to determine K abundance, and maps with K distribution were produced for each stage of the experiment. Laboratory analysis was done to validate and explain the field results. Statistical relationships between absorption feature parameters of K, water and clay were established to determine whether K was removed during the experiment. Based on coefficients of determination (R2), it can be concluded that an increase in moisture and clay content in a soil of over 18% poses a practical limitation in the use of K as a soil particle tracer with field infrared spectroscopy.

Keywords: potassium, SWIR, ASD spectroscopy, soil erosion


Khimiya. 22, 110-113 (2013) Author(s): N. Encheva:

Abstract.Keywords: home chemistry experiments, young people, interest in chemistry


Khimiya. 22, 114-135 (2013) Author(s): K.S. Taber:

Abstract.Harry Collins argues that tacit knowledge (TK) should not all be seen as a form of personal knowledge, but that rather a very significant form of TK, collective TK (CTK), is located in society, as the brains of humans within a society are connected in a way comparable to the way the neurones within a single brain are connected. For Collins, individuals are parasites that feed on the socially located knowledge. Collins believes such CTK explains how humans, unlike animals or machines can carry out ???mimeomorphic??? actions, i.e. those that rely upon interpreting the social context. The kind of craft knowledge that sometimes limits the transfer of procedural scientific knowledge between laboratories without exchanges of personnel is considered an example of such CTK. The review relates aspects of Collins??? presentation to perspectives and debates from within science education, and raises questions about questions Collins??? parasitism analogy, and his notion of TK that is located in society rather than in individuals.

Keywords: tacit knowledge, personal knowledge, knowledge in society, social cartesianism


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