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Volume 21, Issue 1  (2012)

B.V. Toshev
Science Education in the Science of Education [In Bulgarian]

Full text: PDF (551 K)

Letters to the Editor:
Y. Belcheva, A. Stamboldjieva
Medicine in the Eyes of Three Sciences, Three Teachers and One Class [In Bulgarian]

Full text: PDF (270 K)

K. Tutulkov
Visualization of Heat Phenomena by Physlets [In Bulgarian]

Full text: PDF (949 K)

Education: Theory & Practice:
M.S. Koksal
Adaptation Study of Motivation Toward Science Learning Questionnaire for Academically Advanced Science Student

Full text: PDF (424 K)

Curriculum Matters:
Y. Dimova, K. Kamarska
Verbal Associations of Bulgarian Teenagers for Substance [In Bulgarian]

Full text: PDF (462 K)

A. Gendjova
High and Low Order Thinking Skills in Bulgarian and Canadian Science School Curriculum [In Bulgarian]

Full text: PDF (629 K)

R. Sanjeev, V. Jagannadham, R. Veda Vrath
A Simple Explanation from the Sign of Rho-Value for the Kind of Charge That Develops in the Intermediate or the Transition State of a Reaction Series: A One-Hour Physical-Organic Chemistry Classroom L

Full text: PDF (523 K)

M.D. Stojkovic
Murphy's Law in Chemistry

Full text: PDF (731 K)

D. Tasheva, P. Tsanova
42nd International Chemistry Olympiad [In Bulgarian]

Full text: PDF (1463 K)

From the Research Laboratories:
M. Saquib Hasnain, A.K. Nayak
Solubility and Dissolution Enhancement of Ibuprofen by Solid Dispersion Technique Using PEG 6000-PVP K 30 Combination Carrier

Full text: PDF (924 K)

B.V. Toshev
History of Physics [In Bulgarian]

Full text: PDF (378 K)

B.V. Toshev
Historical Geography of Ethiopia [In Bulgarian]

Full text: PDF (1512 K)

V.B. Toshev
Geography and Journeys [In Bulgarian]

Full text: PDF (1191 K)


Family Meetings in School [In Bulgarian]

Full text: PDF (538 K)


A New Book: Academician Rostislav Kaishev - A Life Dedicated to Science

Full text: PDF (698 K)


Eloge: Stefana Delimarkova (1935-2012) [In Bulgarian]

Full text: PDF (260 K)


Khimiya, Volume 21, Issue 1(2012)

Khimiya. 21, 7- (2012) Author(s): B.V. Toshev:

Abstract.Differentiation of sciences was recently replaced by their integration. The old pedagogical disciplines amalgamated in the new comprehensive science of education. Science education is the most dynamic part of the science of education. The previous special didactics are replaced with the 3P-model (Pedagogy, Psychology and Philosophy). Processes in social systems are so complicated that their description cannot be done without using complex interdisciplinary and multidisciplinary instruments. The scientific and practical activities in education need a proper media for effective discussion and exchange of ideas, results and good practices. The multidisciplinary scholarly journal can take such a role.

Keywords: : science education, science of education, scholarly journals in education, interdisciplinary & multidisciplinary


Khimiya. 21, 29- (2012) Author(s): M.S. Koksal:

Abstract.In this study, the purpose is to adapt Motivation toward science learning questionnaire for academically advanced science students. The survey method was used for the study and examination of reliability and validity of the scores on the instrument was conducted after the data collection. The study was conducted on 75 advanced science students. The principle component analysis with varimax rotation was used at the beginning of the study. Then, considering high communalities and loading of the majority of the items on one factor, confirmatory factor analysis with maximum likelihood method on one-factor solution was conducted. The results of the study showed that the adapted instrument was valid and reliable to use for the measurements of motivation toward science learning in the context of advanced science classrooms.

Keywords: advanced science students, motivation, science learning


Khimiya. 21, 45- (2012) Author(s): Y. Dimova, K. Kamarska:

Abstract.The article comprises the first part of a diagnostic research on the content of the concept of Substance in the linguistic mind of Bulgarian teenagers. Focus is on the data from a free associative experiment carried out following the S (stimulus) → R (reactions) scheme. On the basis of 2000 reactions of 200 6th-graders and 200 7th-graders (100 boys and 100 girls in each group) we seek similarities and differences in the group associative fields based on education and gender. The data is discussed in three different aspects: psychological, didactic and psycho-linguistic. We formulate conclusions about the qualities of some school syllabi in the culture-educational field of Natural sciences and ecology and about their influence on the results of 6th and 7th-grade education.

Keywords: linguistic consciousness, substance as a concept


Khimiya. 21, 60- (2012) Author(s): A. Gendjova:

Abstract.To enable young people to solve problems of life related to science, they must have thinking skills of a higher order. This means that they need to learn to analyze, plan, evaluate, think critically and creatively, generate new ideas and knowledge at school. The study aims to find possible reasons for the difference between the Bulgarian and Canadian students performance in science in the PISA, by juxtaposition the levels of thinking (high and low thinking skills), intended in the Bulgarian Curriculum in Chemistry and Environmental protection, and the Canadian Science Curriculum, for 7th and 8th grade. Content analysis research methodology is used. The results show a strong preponderance of low order thinking skills in Bulgarian, in contrast to Canadian Curriculum, the latter exhibits balance between low and high order thinking skills. This is probably one of reasons for the difference in achievements of the students from the two countries in international educational assessments. The interpretation of the results reveals "hidden" trends in the expected development of young people in Bulgaria as cheap labor in the global economy.

Keywords: high order thinking skills, science curriculum, content analysis


Khimiya. 21, 71- (2012) Author(s): R. Sanjeev, V. Jagannadham, R. Veda Vrath:

Abstract.The sign of Rho- (Hammetts reaction constant) in the ionization of benzoic acids is unit positive; therefore it follows that any reaction series with positive ρ value will have the same center of charge in magnitude on the transition state. And if the sign of ρ turns out to be negative for some reaction series it implies that reaction site in the transition state will have positive sign. This is one of the vital, fundamental conclusions of Hammetts linear free energy relation (LFER). An outsized number of reaction series religiously conform to this fundamental conclusion. In this article, we have strived to explicate this fundamental conclusion to graduate and undergraduate students by taking the illustration of several reactions with different Hammett reaction constants. In Scheme 5 the students can examine simultaneous negative and positive Hammetts Rho- values in a solitary reaction. Thus it is expedient for a professor to give Scheme 5 reaction series to exemplify the relation between sign of rho and the charge on the transition state in his lecture on Hammets equation.

Keywords: Hammetts reaction constant, transition state, intermediate


Khimiya. 21, 78- (2012) Author(s): M.D. Stojkovic:

Abstract.Not only has the Murphys law acquired numerous supporters due to its populatity, but it has also expanded to all fields of human activity, from economy, through arts, to natural sciences. This work describes the creation and historical development of the Murphys law, as well as a special movement within research-scientific Murphology, so-called Murphy in chemistry. Numerous Murphian laws, postulates, rules and axioms directly derive from laboratory and research work in the field of chemistry. Moreover, there is a correspondence between certain chemistry contents (primary and secondary schoos) and rasearch Murphology, as well as its application within chemistry teaching. The use of the Murphys law aims not only at bringing closer chemistry contents to students in an interesting way with the help of humour, but also at acquainting them with the issue of research, restoring the interest in chemistry and popularization of natural sciences.

Keywords: Murphys law, Murphy in chemistry, primary and high school, chemistry teaching, students


Khimiya. 21, 90- (2012) Author(s): D. Tasheva, P. Tsanova:

Abstract.The paper represents some of the problems (theoretical and practical) of the 42nd International Chemistry Olympiad and the solutions of theoretical problems. Comments of Bulgarian team presentation are given.

Keywords: International Chemistry Olympiad (IChO), practical exams, theoretical problems and solutions


Khimiya. 21, 118- (2012) Author(s): M. Saquib Hasnain, A.K. Nayak:

Abstract.Ibuprofen solid dispersions were prepared with the objective of solubility and dissolution improvement using PEG 6000-PVP K 30 combination carrier by solvent evaporation technique. The saturation solubility and in vitro dissolution studies showed remarkable improvement in solubility and drug dissolution of these new ibuprofen solid dispersions over pure ibuprofen, ibuprofen solid dispersions using PEG 6000 and PVP K 30, individually and physical mixtures. The in vitro drug dissolution from these new ibuprofen solid dispersions was followed Hixson-Crowell model. The XRD and DSC studies indicated the transformation of crystalline ibuprofen (in pure drug) to amorphous ibuprofen (in solid dispersions using PEG 6000-PVP K 30 combination) by the solid dispersion technology. Stability studies of these solid dispersions does not show any significant changes (p < 0.05) in drug content and drug dissolved in 60 minutes (Q60 min, %) within 6 months study periods (at 25 2C and 60 5 % RH). This study concluded that the improved solubility as well as drug dissolution of these new ibuprofen solid dispersions using PEG 6000-PVP K 30 combination may be attributed to improved wettability, and reduction in drug crystallinity, which can be modulated by appropriate level of hydrophilic carriers.

Keywords: solid dispersion, ibuprofen, solubility, dissolution, polyethylene glycol, polyvinyl pyrrolidone


Khimiya. 21, 133- (2012) Author(s): B.V. Toshev:

Abstract.The History of Physics is a textbook for students of the University of Sofia, written by Professor Ivan Lalov, f. Rector of the University of Sofia and f. Minister of Education and Science. In 13 chapters the author gives a concise presentation of the development of Physics from the Seventeenth Century to our days.

Keywords: history of physics, mechanics, thermodynamics, electricity, optics, relativity, quantum physics, nuclear physics, particle physics, astrophysics


Khimiya. 21, 137- (2012) Author(s): B.V. Toshev:

Abstract.The Hakluyt Society (1846) has for its object the advancement of knowledge and education, particularly in relation to the understanding of world history. It pursues this aim by publishing scholarly editions of primary narratives of travel and exploration undertaken by individuals from many parts of the globe. Often previously available only in manuscript or in unedited versions in languages other than English, these texts are the essential records of the initial stages of inter-continental and inter-cultural encounter. The Society has so far published over 200 editions in some 350 volumes, all of them in English. Unfortunately, most of these books are not available in Bulgaria. This review presents the most recent two volumes published by Hakluyt Society History of Ethiopia from 1622.

Keywords: Hakluyt Society, history, historical geography, history of Ethiopia, Pedro Paez


Khimiya. 21, 142- (2012) Author(s): V.B. Toshev:

Abstract.This book provides detailed information about 501 islands located at different parts of the world. Most of these geographic objects can be considered as amazing tourist destinations. The book can be used as a living source in school geography. The excellent illustrations in the book are need to be specially admired.

Keywords: geography, islands, Europe, America, Africa, Asia, Oceania


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